why is albert gallatin important

Albert Gallatin was born on 29 January 1761 into an aristocratic French family with a history of over four hundred years of leadership in the area around Geneva in what is now Switzerland. New York: Vantage Press, 1985. He hoped to connect all Americans to the market system while maintaining a national unity that would overcome local and sectional disputes. When Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war, the national debt was higher than ever. Albert, as he preferred to be known, traced his ancestry to thirteenth-century Savoy, where the Gallatins (or Gallatinis) were a noble family holding fiefs along the upper Rhône. He is known for being the founder of New York University and for serving in the Democratic-Republican Party at various federal elective and appointed positions across four decades. He insisted upon a continuity of sound governmental fiscal policies when the Republican (Jeffersonian) Party assumed national political power, and he was instrumental in negotiating an end to the War of 1812. assumed a major role in promoting the exploration and settlement of the western frontier. JAMES MADISON, was born on 16 March 1751 of a family that had been in Virginia since the mid-seventeenth century. He pushed for prison reforms and was an advocate for a public education system. Harry Ammon During his final years, Gallatin served as president of the New York Historical Society. In 1823 Gallatin returned to the United States. He entered the House of Representatives in 1795 and became the most knowledgeable Republican on public finance. Having a strong interest in education, Gallatin in 1830 helped found New York University. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gallatin-albert-1761-1849. He held this position longer than had any other secretary of the Treasury, serving from 1801 to 1814. Gallatin made his political debut in September 1788 as a delegate from Fayette County to an anti-Federalist convention in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Adams, Henry, Albert Gallatin, New York: Chelsea House, 1983. He was bitterly denounced by Federalists in Congress, and, when the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed in 1798, Thomas Jefferson believed they were partly intended to drive Gallatin from office. quarters rect. He also worked to guard against the future accumulation of debts. They wanted to keep most government powers at the state level. Visionary . ." He also sought to fund internal improvements to open up the western territories, including plans for $20 million worth of canals and roads connecting eastern rivers with the Mississippi. . List the name three important federal initiatives Gallatin was involved in American Eras. Stevens, John A. Albert Gallatin. ." . Gallatin played an important mediating role during the 1794 Whiskey Rebellion, an uprising of western Pennsylvanians angered by federal liquor taxes. Need for Federal Programs . His mother was Sophie Albertine Rolaz du Rosey, and his father, Jean Gallatin, was a merchant. "The ground which I occupied in that body [Congress] is well known, and I need not dwell on the share I took in all the important debates and on the great questions which during that period agitated the public mind....". Although Gallatin favored rechartering the Bank of the United States in 1811, Congress refused, and America entered the War of 1812 with its monetary system in disarray. Encyclopedia.com. Whiskey Rebellion, uprising against the liquor tax in Pennsylvania in 1794 that was militarily quelled, though no battle ensued. Land speculation is the buying of undeveloped frontier land cheaply with the intention of later reselling it to settlers at a higher price, thus making a profit. Gallatin earned a reputation as an expert in the area of public finance, and he was considered an able spokesman for the small farms and businesses he represented. . Western Politics . His A Sketch of the Finances of the United States (1796), a moderate, detailed analysis of the Federalist financial program, argued that a public debt was a public curse. So Gallatin and the other commissioners arrived in St. Petersburg, Russia, to put an end to the war. Robert Morris was born in Liverpool, England. The sites below are just a sampling of what is available: Archiving Early America: The Whiskey Rebellion http://www.earlyamerica.com/milestone-events/whiskey-rebellion/ "The Whiskey Rebellion," in The History of Bedford and Somerset Counties, by E. Howard Blackburn and William H. Welfley. Evidence suggests that his anti-Federa… . Encyclopedia.com. Quickly establishing a reputation for hard work and integrity, Gallatin became a skillful and logical orator. Gallatin pushed for roads and canals connecting the East to the newly settled West. Early Career. We understand that this is a difficult time and that some individuals may need additional support during this period. In 1783 Gallatin and a Frenchman planned to purchase western land and located an area in Virginia. □. He advocated a system of public education, but also displayed his lifelong interest in financial matters, supporting bills to abolish paper money, pay the public debt in specie, and establish a bank of Pennsylvania to help support business endeavors. Albert Gallatin: Early America's Swiss-Born Statesman. However, the War of 1812 with England again forced the nation to raise taxes and increase government borrowing. They elected him to the U.S. House of Representatives that fall. Refusing to deal through Russia, Great Britain expressed its willingness to proceed with direct negotiations, and commissioners from the two countries finally met at Ghent in August 1814. His greatest contribution came in the field of public finance. Albert Gallatin, our 4th Secretary of the Treasury, was born on January 29, 1761 in Geneva, Switzerland.He emigrated to the United States and arrived in Boston in 1780, but didn’t stay there long before moving on to Machias in Maine. B. Lippincott, 1879. However, he devoted most of his attention to the ethnology of the American Indian and founded the American Ethnological Society in 1842. Moreover, he followed his unique Gallatinian approach to domestic policy as well as international diplomacy, always in pursuit of one paramount objective: the preservation of individual liberty within the context of a republic. The Senate ruled against him, and Gallatin returned to Pennsylvania, where the new excise tax on whiskey stills had stirred up the rioting known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The following year, in 1824, Gallatin agreed to run as the vice presidential candidate on the Democratic-Republican ticket with the current secretary of the treasury, William H. Crawford (1772–1834). He was not successful as a pioneer or a land speculator, although he became deeply identified with the interests of western settlers as he began a career in politics. Peace was signed in the Treaty of Ghent (December 24). Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). James Monroe Alexander I (1777–1825), the Russian tsar (national leader), had offered to help the discussions get started. Adams, not much given to praise, rated him as the leading negotiator on both sides. In 1782 he was appointed a tutor at Harvard College. A statue of Gallatin stands today in Washington, D.C., before the U.S. Treasury building. In addition, he pursued a personal interest in Native American languages, culture, and history. For the short time he was in Maine, he had a bartering venture dealing with a variety of goods and supplies and commanded a garrison. Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. He supported the founding of a state bank, greater control over the currency, retirement of public debt, and greater accountability of the Treasury Department to the legislature. After eight years as one of the most influential figures in Encyclopedia of World Biography. Albert Gallatin and James Madison worked to reestablish a legislative finance committee to monitor government taxes and spending. Tradesm…, Morris, Robert (1734-1806) ." With Thomas Jefferson's presidency in 1800 and the triumph of the Republicans, Gallatin was named to head the Treasury Department. RC (DLC); undated; addressed: “The President”; endorsed by TJ as a letter of 26 Oct. received from the Treasury Department on the same day and “paimt of interest at Paris. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Distraught, Gallatin considered returning to Geneva. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government. Gallatin went on to help establish New York University and serve as president of the New-York Historical Society. Encyclopedia of World Biography. In 1847, toward the end of the Mexican American War, he warned Once in America, Gallatin took little part in the conflict, instead attempting to set up a trading business. His efforts were complicated by high military expenditures and the purchase of the Louisiana territory in 1803. He served his adopted country for 60 years as a congressional leader, Secretary of the Treasury, financier, ambassador and has been referred to as America’s Swiss Founding Father. His fellow Jeffersonians often argued that the less government the better. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gallatin-albert, "Gallatin, Albert "Albert Gallatin "History of the Treasury: Secretaries of the Treasury—Albert Gallatin." Six subcommittees—on Trade, Oversight, Health, Social Security, Human Resources, and Select Revenue Measures—operate within the Committee on Ways and Means. Along with several other peace commissioners, appointed by Madison to end the war with England, Gallatin set sail for Europe in the spring of 1813 while still serving as treasury secretary. ONE of the most beloved of American presidents, William McKinley served as the nation's chief executive during a time w…, Albert I of Monaco (Honoré Charles Grimaldi), https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gallatin-albert, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/albert-gallatin, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gallatin-albert-1761-1849-0, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gallatin-albert-1761-1849, Taxation, Public Finance, and Public Debt. He was also instrumental in obtaining a charter (government authorization) for the Bank of Pennsylvania which was created to help manage state finances. Gallatin served in this capacity until 1823. Gallatin found many things had changed during his absence from western Pennsylvania. Encyclopedia.com. In many ways Brown was a remarkable man. New York: Macmillan, 1957. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Later Career . By 1789, Gallatin had completed the rustic mansion which he called Friendship Hill. However, he failed in his attempt to obtain a charter for the Bank of the United States. Gallatin’s specific plan was never carried out though the nation’s transportation system did develop through partnerships between federal and state governments on the one hand and private firms on the other. Transportation Visionary . He remained in the public eye as a leader in the areas of fiscal responsibility and free trade (limited government regulation), constantly warning against speculation (high risk investments) and debt. (December 21, 2020). Kuppenheimer, L. B., Albert Gallatin's vision of democratic stability: an interpretive profile, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996. The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 and ending in 1794 during the presidency of George Washington, ultimately under the command of American Revolutionary war veteran Major James McFarlane. He proposed creation of the Ways and Means Committee—Congress's first permanent standing committee— to receive financial reports from the secretary of the Treasury and to superintend government finances. Disappointed by the results, Gallatin purchased a wagon and loaded it with sugar, tobacco, and rum. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Indeed, his strong European accent would remain a factor throughout his political career. Gallatin died in 1849 in Astoria, New York. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 8. He asserted that canals should be built to join the Mississippi River valley to the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean. Why is Marbury v. Madison an important decision in U.S. history? Philadelphia: J. Despite the rising number of COVID-19 cases, Albert Gallatin Human Services Agency is still helping seniors stay in touch by sending cards, giving people puzzles to … Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Shortly after he returned in 1823 Gallatin was chosen to run as William Crawford’s vice president in the 1824 election. Albert Gallatin was born in Geneva, Switzerland, on Jan. 29, 1761. When federal troops arrived at the end of summer to put down the rebellion, they found only a few remaining lawbreakers who were taken to Philadelphia for trial. In 1793, Gallatin was elected to the U.S. Senate from Pennsylvania, but he was denied his seat for political reasons as there was a strong distrust of people who appeared to be foreigners. Named for U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin, the city was established on the Cumberland River and made the county seat of Sumner County in 1802. The county seat is Shawneetown. . He published his findings in A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British and Russian Possessions of North America. By publishing a number of reports and pamphlets, Gallatin kept the public aware of his views and activities. Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin was born on January 29, 1761, in Geneva, Switzerland. At the age of eighty-seven, Gallatin experienced health problems and became bedridden. Gallatin set out to survey and register their holdings in April 1784. Albert Gallatin’s thought about the idea of Manifest Destiny was: US should be superior.. Still, Gallatin’s 1808 plan anticipated such aspects of the Transportation Revolution as the Erie Canal, which facilitated the economic development and American settlement of the Trans-Appalachian West. Gallatin served in the Pennsylvania state legislature from 1790 to 1792. However, when Gallatin took his Senate seat, the Federalists challenged his eligibility, based on the fact that he had not applied for citizenship early enough to meet technical citizenship requirements. He moved to his daughter's summer home in Astoria, Long Island, where he died at the age of eighty-eight. In order to pay his bills, Gallatin taught French as a resident tutor at Harvard College, but he continued searching for the means to earn his fortune. He brought his new bride, Sophie Allegre, to their wilderness home, but she died that fall after only a few months of marriage. But after 1807 the Embargo Act and other American efforts at peaceful coercion to avoid involvement in the Napoleonic Wars wrecked his policies. Settling in New York, Gallatin served as president of the National Bank from 1831 until his retirement in 1839. “I think the most important thing in the book,” he said, “is the description in chapter 6 of why Gallatin and the other Republicans wanted to undo Hamilton’s system. During his time in the Pennsylvania Assembly, Gallatin worked to reduce the public debt left by the Revolutionary War and to abolish slavery. Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was an American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. Encyclopedia.com. As Secretary, Mr. Mnuchin is responsible for the U.S. Treasury, whose mission is to maintain a strong economy, foster economic growth, and create job opportunities by promoting the conditions that enable prosperity at home and abroad. Gallatin's public career ended with his final report relating to the Maine boundary dispute. However, the Federalists, who felt threatened by Gallatin’s persistent and informed attacks on their agenda, managed to nullify his election to the Senate. Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. What will they do at the intersection of Blythe/Old 109 North? President Madison granted Gallatin leave from the Treasury to join John Quincy Adams and James A. Bayard in exploring Russia's offer to mediate in the war. Balinky, Alexander. Albert Gallatin, by Rembrandt Peale, from life, 1805. Why The Whiskey Rebellion Was Important Sources The Whiskey Rebellion was a 1794 uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania … Gallatin insisted that the Treasury Department should be held accountable to Congress by submitting an annual report. Pennsylvania Historical and MuseumCommission.http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/ppet/gallatin/page1.asp?secid=31 (accessed on August 13, 2005). "Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He unsuccessfully supported renewal of the charter of the Second Bank of the United States, but he was instrumental in obtaining the resumption of specie payments after their suspension following the economic panic of 1837. After Gallatin spent an interlude as a gentleman farmer, President John Quincy Adams appointed him minister to Great Britain in 1826. Because his candidacy created so much controversy, he dropped out of the race. He believed that all Americans would benefit from this program. He was largely responsible for persuading his comrades to submit to the new law. "Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) The men purchased 120,000 acres of land along the Ohio River in Virginia, which at that time extended far to the west past the Appalachians, and Pennsylvania. In Pennsylvania he urged changes to the penal code, the establishment of a public-school system, and the abolition of slavery. He accomplished many things in his lifetime but may be most known for serving the longest term, fourteen years, as United States Secretary Treasury. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Merrill D. Peterson Albert Gallatin is considered one of the most influential men of the early American Republic, and one of the most prominent Swiss-Americans in U.S. history. ." Although he criticized high tariffs and advocated free trade, he affirmed Congress's right to levy protective tariffs. by the same analogy : for TJ’s inclusion in the instructions of some of Gallatin’s geographical queries, see the notes to Document IV . L. B. Kuppenheimer, Albert Gallatin’s Vision of Democratic Stability (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996); Raymond Walters, Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat (New York: Macmillan, 1957). Encyclopedia.com. In 1786 Gallatin bought a 400-acre farm in western Pennsylvania and devoted himself to farming and land development. He took an oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1785. Jefferson's Cabinet, Gallatin continued to serve as secretary of the treasury under President Madison. He served as American minister to France (1816-1823). He held the office longer than any other person in U.S. history, and he became one of the most influential men of the early American republic. When Albert turned thirteen, he entered the Academy of Geneva, where he received an excellent education. In 1793 he was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Republican. Gallatin's opinions were highly respected on a national level and his last pamphlet, Suggestions on the Banks and Currency of the Several United States, was well received. 311–352. Gallatin, Albert ( 29 January 1761–13 August 1849 ), fourth secretary of the treasury and diplomat, was born Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin in Geneva, Switzerland, the son of Jean Gallatin, a merchant, and Sophie Albertine Rolaz du Rosey. Corrections? The positive public reaction to the publication encouraged Gallatin to take a leading role in the creation of the American Ethnological Society in 1842. He was ultimately successful in framing the Treaty of Ghent of December 1814, which secured a number of economic advantages for the United States despite the nation’s poor military record in the war. and “Missouri” and so recorded in SJL . . A native of Switzerland, Gallatin began life in his adopted country as a land speculator and farmer. On January 7, 1802, Congress officially created a permanent Committee on Ways and Means. Young Albert became orphaned at the age of nine and was sent to live with a distant relative, Catherine Picket. A young man of the age of the Enlightenment, he was sympathetic to the American Revolution and sailed for America in 1780, happy to be in "the freest country in the universe.". Nevertheless, in 1795 Gallatin returned to Congress as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. He resigned in the wake of intense Federalist opposition to the war and the financial policies needed to support it. Gallatin, James, The diary of James Gallatin, secretary to Albert Gallatin, a great peace maker, 1813-1827, West Port, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979, 1916. At the same time he had his own vision of the future of the United States, which included federal aid for the economic development of the Trans-Appalachian West. He opposed the Federalists' warlike measures against France and, when the Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) to silence domestic political opposition, he resisted with powerful arguments defending basic civil liberties. US Congressman, Presidential Cabinet Secretary. His father, also called Rob…, Hamilton, Alexander THOMAS JEFFERSON was inaugurated third president of the United States on 4 March 1801 in the infant capital on t…, James Madison In November 1793, Gallatin married Hannah Nicholson, a New York socialite, and returned home to Friendship Hill. After Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as U.S. president in March 1801, Gallatin became the secretary of the treasury. Gallatin laid the foundation for sound governmental fiscal (economic) policies that would guide the young nation for years to come. Gallatin pushed for a level of equality of opportunity and a public land policy where the government helped all citizens, not just an elite group of merchants and speculators. He sold Friendship Hill to a Frenchman whom he had met in Paris. ." Gallatin spent his remaining years as a diplomat, banker, and ethnologist. A reorganization in 1865 separated the Committee on Ways and Means into three parts, with one new branch becoming the Committee on Banking and Commerce and a second new branch becoming the Committee on Appropriations. There he inaugurated the House Committee on Finance, which later grew into the powerful Ways and Means Committee. Tucked away in a wooded spot overlooking the Monongahela River in southwestern Pennsylvania is Friendship Hill National Historic Site, home of Albert Gallatin (1761–1849). The other is the U.S. Senate. Gallatin supported and secured the financing for the Louisiana Purchase and called for some federal support for improving roads into western lands and opening up the means for getting produce to markets. In 1839, Gallatin stepped down as president of the National Bank, but he continued his writings well into his eighties. 21 Dec. 2020 . The House first created a Committee on Ways and Means on July 24, 1789, during its opening session, but it was disbanded after only two months. Swiss-born Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) was U.S. secretary of the Treasury, as well as a diplomat, banker, and ethnographer. . In 1797–98 he helped to reduce Federalist-sponsored expenditures aimed at promoting hostilities with France. Political Origins . His father was a prosperous merchant descended from an aristocratic family long politically prominent. Encyclopaedia Britannica to live with a distant relative, Catherine Picket purchase of treasury! Means to supervise the project to format page numbers of administrative policy than has been recognized 1860 Gallatin... Raise taxes and revenue measures collected to pay the debts why is albert gallatin important the republic, was... Little to show for his economic pursuits and his father, Jean Gallatin, by Rembrandt Peale, from,! 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